Securing the Admin API

Kong's Admin API provides a RESTful interface for administration and configuration of APIs, plugins, consumers, and credentials. Because this API allows full control of Kong, it is important to secure this API against unwanted access. This document describes a few possible approaches to securing the Admin API.

Table of Contents

Network Layer Access Restrictions

Reduce Listening Footprint

By default, Kong will accept requests for both the public-facing entrypoint, and the Admin API, on 0.0.0.0, which will bind to all available interfaces on the host. Reducing this exposure footprint by limiting the interfaces by which the Admin API can be accessed is a foundational step. This setting can be adjusted via the admin_listen Kong configuration directive. For example:

admin_listen 127.0.0.1:8001

This will define the Nginx listen directive used by Kong to the prescribed value, instructing Kong to only respond to requests received on the localhost interface.

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Layer 3/4 Network Controls

In cases where the Admin API must be exposed beyond a localhost interface, network security best practices dictate that network-layer access be restricted as much as possible. Consider an environment in which Kong listens on a private network interface, but should only be accessed by a small subset of an IP range. In such a case, host-based firewalls (e.g. iptables) are useful in limiting input traffic ranges. For example:

# assume that Kong is listening on the address defined below, as defined as a
# /24 CIDR block, and only a select few hosts in this range should have access

$ grep admin_listen /etc/kong/kong.conf
admin_listen 10.10.10.3:8001

# explicitly allow TCP packets on port 8001 from the Kong node itself
# this is not necessary if Admin API requests are not sent from the node
$ iptables -A INPUT -s 10.10.10.3 -m tcp -p tcp --dport 8001 -j ACCEPT

# explicitly allow TCP packets on port 8001 from the following addresses
$ iptables -A INPUT -s 10.10.10.4 -m tcp -p tcp --dport 8001 -j ACCEPT
$ iptables -A INPUT -s 10.10.10.5 -m tcp -p tcp --dport 8001 -j ACCEPT

# drop all TCP packets on port 8001 not in the above IP list
$ iptables -A INPUT -m tcp -p tcp --dport 8001 -j DROP

Additional controls, such as similar ACLs applied at a network device level, are encouraged, but fall outside the scope of this document.

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Kong API Loopback

Kong's routing design allows it to serve as a proxy for the Admin API itself. In this manner, Kong itself can be used to provide fine-grained access control to the Admin API. Such an environment requires bootstrapping a new API that defines the admin_listen address as the API's upstream_url. For example:

# assume that Kong has defined admin_listen as 127.0.0.1:8001, and we want to
# reach the Admin API via the url `/admin-api`

$ curl http://localhost:8001/apis \
  --data name=admin-api \
  --data uris=/admin-api \
  --data upstream_url=http://localhost:8001

# we can now transparently reach the Admin API through the proxy server
$ curl localhost:8000/admin-api/apis
{  
   "data":[  
      {  
         "uris":[  
            "\/admin-api"
         ],
         "id":"653b21bd-4d81-4573-ba00-177cc0108dec",
         "upstream_read_timeout":60000,
         "preserve_host":false,
         "created_at":1496351805000,
         "upstream_connect_timeout":60000,
         "upstream_url":"http:\/\/localhost:8001",
         "strip_uri":true,
         "https_only":false,
         "name":"admin-api",
         "http_if_terminated":true,
         "upstream_send_timeout":60000,
         "retries":5
      }
   ],
   "total":1
}

From here, simply apply desired Kong-specific security controls (such as basic or key authentication, IP restrictions, or access control lists) as you would normally to any other Kong API.

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Custom Nginx Configuration

Kong is tightly coupled with Nginx as an HTTP daemon, and can thus be integrated into environments with custom Nginx configurations. In this manner, use cases with complex security/access control requirements can use the full power of Nginx/OpenResty to build server/location blocks to house the Admin API as necessary. This allows such environments to leverage native Nginx authorization and authentication mechanisms, ACL modules, etc., in addition to providing the OpenResty environment on which custom/complex security controls can be built.

For more information on integrating Kong into custom Nginx configurations, see Custom Nginx configuration & embedding Kong.

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Role Based Access Control

Enterprise-Only This feature is only available with an Enterprise Subscription.

Enterprise users can configure role-based access control to secure access to the Admin API. RBAC allows for fine-grained control over resource access based on a model of user roles and permissions. Users are assigned to one or more roles, which each in turn possess one or more permissions granting or denying access to a particular resource. In this way, fine-grained control over specific Admin API resources can be enforced, while scaling to allow complex, case-specific uses.

If you are not a Mashape Enterprise customer, you can inquire about our Enterprise offering by contacting us.

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