Load Balancing Reference
Kong provides multiple ways of load balancing requests to multiple backend services: a straightforward DNS-based method, and a more dynamic ring-balancer that also allows for service registry without needing a DNS server.
Table of Contents
- DNS-based loadbalancing
- Blue-green Deployments
- Canary Releases
When using DNS-based load balancing, the registration of the backend services is done outside of Kong, and Kong only receives updates from the DNS server.
Every Service that has been defined with a
host containing a hostname
(instead of an IP address) will automatically use DNS-based load balancing
if the name resolves to multiple IP addresses, provided the hostname does not
resolve to an
upstream name or a name in your DNS hostsfile.
The DNS record
ttl setting (time to live) determines how often the information
is refreshed. When using a
ttl of 0, every request will be resolved using its
own DNS query. Obviously this will have a performance penalty, but the latency of
updates/changes will be very low.
An A record contains one or more IP addresses. Hence, when a hostname resolves to an A record, each backend service must have its own IP address.
Because there is no
weight information, all entries will be treated as equally
weighted in the load balancer, and the balancer will do a straight forward
An SRV record contains weight and port information for all of its IP addresses. A backend service can be identified by a unique combination of IP address and port number. Hence, a single IP address can host multiple instances of the same service on different ports.
weight information is available, each entry will get its own
weight in the load balancer and it will perform a weighted round-robin.
Similarly, any given port information will be overridden by the port information from
the DNS server. If a Service has attributes
myhost.com resolves to an SRV record with
127.0.0.1:456, then the request
will be proxied to
http://127.0.0.1:456/somepath, as port
123 will be
The DNS resolver will start resolving the following record types in order:
- The last successful type previously resolved
- SRV record
- A record
- CNAME record
This order is configurable through the
dns_order configuration property.
Whenever the DNS record is refreshed a list is generated to handle the weighting properly. Try to keep the weights as multiples of each other to keep the algorithm performant, e.g., 2 weights of 17 and 31 would result in a structure with 527 entries, whereas weights 16 and 32 (or their smallest relative counterparts 1 and 2) would result in a structure with merely 3 entries, especially with a very small (or even 0)
Some nameservers do not return all entries (due to UDP packet size) in those cases (for example Consul returns a maximum of 3) a given Kong node will only use the few upstream service instances provided by the nameserver. In this scenario, it is possible that the pool of upstream instances will be loaded inconsistently, because the Kong node is effectively unaware of some of the instances, due to the limited information provided by the nameserver. To mitigate this use a different nameserver, use IP addresses instead of names, or make sure you use enough Kong nodes to still have all upstream services being used.
When the nameserver returns a
3 name error, then that is a valid response for Kong. If this is unexpected, first validate the correct name is being queried for, and second check your nameserver configuration.
The initial pick of an IP address from a DNS record (A or SRV) is not randomized. So when using records with a
ttlof 0, the nameserver is expected to randomize the record entries.
When using the ring-balancer, the adding and removing of backend services will be handled by Kong, and no DNS updates will be necessary. Kong will act as the service registry. Nodes can be added/deleted with a single HTTP request and will instantly start/stop receiving traffic.
Configuring the ring-balancer is done through the
target: an IP address or hostname with a port number where a backend service resides, eg. "192.168.100.12:80". Each target gets an additional
weightto indicate the relative load it gets. IP addresses can be in both IPv4 and IPv6 format.
upstream: a 'virtual hostname' which can be used in a Route
hostfield, e.g., an upstream named
weather.v2.servicewould get all requests from a Service with
Each upstream gets its own ring-balancer. Each
upstream can have many
target entries attached to it, and requests proxied to the 'virtual hostname'
will be load balanced over the targets. A ring-balancer has a pre-defined
number of slots, and based on the target weights the slots get assigned to the
targets of the upstream.
Adding and removing targets can be done with a simple HTTP request on the Admin API. This operation is relatively cheap. Changing the upstream itself is more expensive as the balancer will need to be rebuilt when the number of slots change for example.
The only occurrence where the balancer will be rebuilt automatically is when the target history is cleaned; other than that, it will only rebuild upon changes.
Within the balancer there are the positions (from 1 to
which are randomly distributed on the ring.
The randomness is required to make invoking the ring-balancer cheap at
runtime. A simple round-robin over the wheel (the positions) will do to
provide a well distributed weighted round-robin over the
also having cheap operations when inserting/deleting targets.
The number of slots to use per target should (at least) be around 100 to make
sure the slots are properly distributed. Eg. for an expected maximum of 8
upstream should be defined with at least
slots=800, even if
the initial setup only features 2 targets.
The tradeoff here is that the higher the number of slots, the better the random distribution, but the more expensive the changes are (add/removing targets)
Detailed information on adding and manipulating
upstreams is available in the
upstream section of the
Admin API reference.
upstream maintains a history of changes, targets can only be
added, not modified nor deleted. To change a target, just add a new entry for
the target, and change the
weight value. The last entry is the one that will
be used. As such setting
weight=0 will disable a target, effectively
deleting it from the balancer. Detailed information on adding and manipulating
targets is available in the
target section of the
Admin API reference.
The targets will be automatically cleaned when there are 10x more inactive entries than active ones. Cleaning will involve rebuilding the balancer, and hence is more expensive than just adding a target entry.
target can also have a hostname instead of an IP address. In that case
the name will be resolved and all entries found will individually be added to
the ring balancer, e.g., adding
name 'api.host.com' resolves to an A record with 2 IP addresses. Then both
ip addresses will be added as target, each getting
weight=100 and port 123.
NOTE: the weight is used for the individual entries, not for the whole!
Would it resolve to an SRV record, then also the
from the DNS record would be picked up, and would overrule the given port
The balancer will honor the DNS record's
ttl setting and requery and update
the balancer when it expires.
Exception: When a DNS record has
ttl=0, the hostname will be added
as a single target, with the specified weight. Upon every proxied request
to this target it will query the nameserver again.
By default a ring-balancer will use a weighted-round-robin scheme. The alternative
would be to use the hash-based algorithm. The input for the hash can be either
header. When set to
weighted-round-robin scheme will be used, and hashing will be disabled.
There are two options, a primary and a fallback in case the primary fails
(e.g., if the primary is set to
consumer, but no consumer is authenticated)
The different hashing options:
none: Do not use hashing, but use weighted-round-robin instead (default).
consumer: Use the consumer id as the hash input. This option will fallback on the credential id if no consumer id is available (in case of external auth like ldap).
ip: The remote (originating) IP address will be used as input. Review the configuration settings for determining the real IP when using this.
header: use a specified header (in either
hash_fallback_headerfield) as input for the hash.
The hashing algorithm is based on 'consistent-hashing' (or the 'ketama principle') which makes sure that when the balancer gets modified by changing the targets (adding, removing, failing, or changing weights) only the minimum number of hashing losses occur. This will maximize upstream cache hits.
For more information on the exact settings see the
upstream section of the
Admin API reference.
The ring-balancer is designed to work both with a single node as well as in a cluster. For the weighted-round-robin algorithm there isn't much difference, but when using the hash based algorithm it is important that all nodes build the exact same ring-balancer to make sure they all work identical. To do this the balancer must be build in a deterministic way.
Do not use hostnames in the balancer as the balancers might/will slowly diverge because the DNS ttl has only second precision and renewal is determined by when a name is actually requested. On top of this is the issue with some nameservers not returning all entries, which exacerbates this problem. So when using the hashing approach in a Kong cluster, add
targetentities only by their IP address, and never by name.
When picking your hash input make sure the input has enough variance to get to a well distributed hash. Hashes will be calculated using the CRC-32 digest. So for example, if your system has thousands of users, but only a few consumers, defined per platform (eg. 3 consumers: Web, iOS and Android) then picking the
consumerhash input will not suffice, using the remote IP address by setting the hash to
ipwould provide more variance in the input and hence a better distribution in the hash output.
Using the ring-balancer a blue-green deployment can be easily orchestrated for
a Service. Switching target infrastructure only requires a
PATCH request on a
Service, to change its
Set up the "Blue" environment, running version 1 of the address service:
# create an upstream $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/upstreams \ --data "name=address.v1.service" # add two targets to the upstream $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/upstreams/address.v1.service/targets \ --data "target=192.168.34.15:80" --data "weight=100" $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/upstreams/address.v1.service/targets \ --data "target=192.168.34.16:80" --data "weight=50" # create a Service targeting the Blue upstream $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/services/ \ --data "name=address-service" \ --data "host=address.v1.service" \ --data "path=/address" # finally, add a Route as an entry-point into the Service $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/services/address-service/routes/ \ --data "hosts=address.mydomain.com"
Requests with host header set to
address.mydomain.com will now be proxied
by Kong to the two defined targets; 2/3 of the requests will go to
weight=100), and 1/3 will go to
Before deploying version 2 of the address service, set up the "Green" environment:
# create a new Green upstream for address service v2 $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/upstreams \ --data "name=address.v2.service" # add targets to the upstream $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/upstreams/address.v2.service/targets \ --data "target=192.168.34.17:80" --data "weight=100" $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/upstreams/address.v2.service/targets \ --data "target=192.168.34.18:80" --data "weight=100"
To activate the Blue/Green switch, we now only need to update the Service:
# Switch the Service from Blue to Green upstream, v1 -> v2 $ curl -X PATCH http://kong:8001/services/address-service \ --data "host=address.v2.service"
Incoming requests with host header set to
address.mydomain.com will now be
proxied by Kong to the new targets; 1/2 of the requests will go to
weight=100), and the other 1/2 will go to
As always, the changes through the Kong Admin API are dynamic and will take effect immediately. No reload or restart is required, and no in progress requests will be dropped.
Using the ring-balancer, target weights can be adjusted granularly, allowing for a smooth, controlled canary release.
Using a very simple 2 target example:
# first target at 1000 $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/upstreams/address.v2.service/targets \ --data "target=192.168.34.17:80" --data "weight=1000" # second target at 0 $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/upstreams/address.v2.service/targets \ --data "target=192.168.34.18:80" --data "weight=0"
By repeating the requests, but altering the weights each time, traffic will slowly be routed towards the other target. For example, set it at 10%:
# first target at 900 $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/upstreams/address.v2.service/targets \ --data "target=192.168.34.17:80" --data "weight=900" # second target at 100 $ curl -X POST http://kong:8001/upstreams/address.v2.service/targets \ --data "target=192.168.34.18:80" --data "weight=100"
The changes through the Kong Admin API are dynamic and will take effect immediately. No reload or restart is required, and no in progress requests will be dropped.